Inventaire d'enquêtes Demostaf

Information sur la citation

Type Revue - BMC Public Health
Titre A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries
Volume 16
Publication (Jour/Mois/Année) 2016
Background While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. Methods We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002–04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Results Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 \% for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 \% for “poor” or “very poor” self-rated health on the single question, and 26 \% for “severe” or “extreme” on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 \% for vision to 35 \% for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 \% respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and gender characteristics of the society. Conclusions Large female-male differences in self-reported health and functioning, equivalent to a decade of growing older, consistently occurred in all regions of the world, irrespective of differences in mortality levels or societal factors. The multi-country study suggests that a mix of biological factors and societal gender inequalities are major contributing factors to gender gap in self-reported measures of health. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3352-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Études utilisées

Boerma, Hosseinpoor, Verdes, and Chatterji. "A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries." BMC Public Health (2016).
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